However, to get along and succeed in the 21st Century, it takes more than having superb IQ, EQ, and Social Intelligence.
The author of ‘The Cultural Intelligence Difference’ David Livermore wrote, “The number one predictor of your success in today’s borderless world is not your IQ, not your resume, and not even your expertise.” He continued, “It’s your CQ (Cultural Intelligence), a powerful capability that is proven to enhance your effectiveness working in culturally diverse situations.”
Sadly, many organizations still depend on IQ, EQ, and Social Intelligence alone when they select supervisors and managers. The author of ‘Cultural Intelligence: CQ: The competitive edge for leaders crossing borders’, Julia Middleton said, “Organizations often appoint leaders for their IQ. Then, years later, sack them for their lack of EQ (Emotional Intelligence).” She predicted, “Common Purpose argues that in the future they will promote for CQ – Cultural Intelligence.“
The question is how can we increase our cultural intelligence? As you already know, there are thousands of cultures around the world and it is tough to survive, let alone to develop the cultural competence to thrive in every culture for which we’re strangers. However, we should start improving our cultural intelligence somewhere. The right place to begin this rewarding journey is by understanding the difference between the two major cultural divides in the world.
Some culture experts suggested dividing the world’s cultures into two major categories: Individual-based cultures, and communal-based cultures. For instance, countries such as USA, Europe, Canada, and Australia are individual-based cultures. On the contrary, countries such as Africa, Asia, and South America are categorized under communal-based cultures. Of course, there are subcultures and individual exceptions within each national culture.
Among many parameters used to show the similarity and difference between the two main cultures, I like the three parameters suggested by Edward Hall:
2. Context, and
Let me quickly compare the two broad cultures briefly using the aforementioned three indicators. Time is treated casually in communal cultures while it’s well organized in individual based cultures. Context is high in collective cultures where people express themselves implicitly while individuals in the individual based cultures communicate explicitly and use verbal communication predominantly. People from communal cultures are less territorial while people from individual based cultures have high tendency to mark their territories.
As a person who lived in these two major cultures, I’ve witnessed first hand how people from the two cultures treat time, communicate, and handle space differently. I was born and raised in Ethiopia, a communal culture. I then came to the US- an individual based culture, in 2005.
At the early stage of my stay in the US, I experienced culture shock. To succeed in my new home, I have made so many changes including the way I treat time, communicate, and relate. I’m still on the learning curve- stumbling here and there once in a while, which makes me humble and open to learning continually. Let me share with you some stories.
Back home, coming late is tolerable. It doesn’t matter who comes first. Since the relationship is valued more than time, none of us make coming late a big deal. We smile and hug each other affectionately and continue our business.
Here in the US, coming late for work is considered as a sign of unprofessionalism and has severe consequences. Outside of work, coming late damages relationships since being late is perceived as disrespectful.
What is interesting is that many of my friends from Ethiopia and Africa compartmentalize their time here in the US. They arrive on time when it comes to their job and formal business affairs but treat time casually in social gatherings. You may get an invitation stating at what time the meeting starts. Unless you have lots of spare time to spend, you don’t come on time as stated on the letter or email or flyer. The event may start two hours late.
I had a Nigerian classmate when I was doing my doctoral degree (2009 – 2013). Whenever we needed to meet, we used to ask one another, is this African time or American? If it’s African time, we don’t fix the time. One of us may be in the library or coffee shop working on school work, and the other person just stops by within the time range we agreed. If it’s American time, we fix the start and end time. We come and leave on time.
In Ethiopia, we use nonverbal communications heavily. On the other hand, here in the US (and other individual based cultures), people dominantly use explicit verbal communication. In communal cultures, if you explicitly talk about yourself, your accomplishments, qualifications, experiences, and needs, you may be labeled as egotistical and selfish. On the contrary, if you don’t communicate verbally, explicitly, and express your needs, aspirations, and experiences in an individual based culture, you may be regarded as shy who lacks confidence.
I used to share bed, clothes, and shoes with my relatives and friends all the time. It was common to find yourself going to one of your friend’s home, and if it rains by the time you leave, you just pick the umbrella of your friend on your way out without asking permission. If you ask, it offends your host. He/she may feel that you distanced yourself. It doesn’t show intimacy and brotherhood/sisterhood. In the US, people are mindful of their spaces. You’re expected to respect other people’s boundaries. You cannot just grab and take someone’s stuff without risking being viewed as rude, or worst, thief.
Nonetheless, understanding the difference between the two cultural divides is the beginning of a long journey. We need to increase our cultural intelligence on a continual basis. With increased cultural intelligence comes understanding from where people come, and refraining from judging others based on the way they treat time, communicate, and handle space.
To get along with people from diverse cultures, we should stop treating our native culture as the standard bearer. We shouldn’t expect everyone to behave and act the way we do. We all should increase our cultural intelligence to live and work with people from different cultures successfully. We should also make some efforts to help each other to understand one another’s cultures.